“Avesto” (Untill - VII AD)

Category: Untill VII AD Published: Sunday, 02 September 2012

The invaluable monument of the world culture in particular the peoples’ of Central Asia and Iran. The holy book of Zoroastrism. The monotheism had begun from this book. It’s composition, ways of expression and structures of mode are close to literary sources. According to the place names (Hrairizem, Varahsha means valish) given in it there are view that the book (“Avesto”) is created on the Amudarya banks and its native land is Horesm.

First “Avesto” was scribed on the skins of nine bulls in the special alphabet created on the bases of Aromiy and Pahlaviy writings. On the bases of its first copies (VII-III centuries BC) 21 books were scribed and only a fourth part of them reached us. The restored text had been commented with the name of “Zand”.

It consists of four parts: Yasna (“Religious Customs”), Yash (close to Yasna by composition), Visparad (“The book on the Most High”), Vendidad (“The collection of laws against evil spirits”). Some anthem included to the Yasna, “The Ghats” (named “The Ghat”) in some other sources is proposed to be written by Zardust himself. One can meet the life of the semi mythical heroes like Jamshid (Yima), Gershasp, Afrasiyab (Alp Ertonga) in the composition of “The Ghats”

Being the first pages of the history of the mankind civilization, “Avesto” had drawn attention of the world scientists. There are some research works on it made by F. Nitshse, F. Shpigel, A. Maillet, V. Bartold, E. Bertels, Yan Ripka, O.Makovelskiy, I.Braginskiy and other foreign scientists.

Studying of “Avesto” in Uzbekistan began in ancient times. In the works of Abu Raihon Beruni, Abu Jafar Tabariy, Abu Bakr Narshahiy we can come across appealing to the doctrine of “Avesto” and its characters. The manuscript and printed copies of those in valuable scientific works are being kept at the storehouse of the Oriental studies Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Research works and articles of such modern Uzbek scientists as A.Kayumov, H.Homidov, M.Ishakov and N.Rahmanov are considered to be noticeable.

In accordance with the resolution of the government of the Republic of Uzbekistan 2700 years anniversary of “Avesto” was marked in 2001. A garden was founded in Horesm, the Uzbek versions (translations) of the work were printed, appeared new research works about it.

Holly book of zaroostrism, founded by Zardust where began the studying about monotheism. As literary monument “Avesto” is rich with mythos and legends, songs (anthems) where the Holly spirit is singing. But many fragments of “Avesto” didn’t get us.

Printed sources:

“Avesto” (in Uzbek, translated by Askar Mahkam) – T.: 2001.
Translation from “Avesto” (translated by M.Ishakov). Uzbek language and literature journal, 1999. # 2-4.

Scientific literature:

Abu Raihon Beruni, Al-asaru-l-bokiya an-al karuni-l-holiya. T.: 1969.
Abu Bahr Muhammad ibn Jafar Narshahiy. History of Buhara. T.: 1966.
A.Kayumov. Ancient monuments. T.: 1971.
H.Homidov “Avesto”. T.: 2001.
N.Rahmonov. “Appearance of “Avesto” “Uzbekiston ovosi” newspaper, May 26, 2001.
N.Rahmonov. “Avesto” means land and Motherland. “Uzbekiston ovosi”, September 25, 2001.

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