Abdurauf Fitrat (1886-1938)

Category: Literature of Jadid's period Published: Saturday, 29 September 2012

Fitrat is a famous member of Jadid’s movement in Central Asia and Uzbek literature a specialist in theory in and practice of Jadids School, a playwriter, publisher, writer and scientist. He was born in Buhara in 1886. At first he studied at old school, later in Madrassa called “Mir Arab”. Fitrat lived in Buhara and later he visited Turkey, India and Arabic countries. He also travelled to Moscow and St. Peterburg. During 1909-1913 he studied in “Dorul Muallimin”. He made an organization called “Buhoro ta’limi maorif”.

In 1913 Fitrat returned to Buhara. He became a founder of New Schools in Shahrisabz and Qarshi. In short period of time he became a successful member of Jadid’s movement in Buhara. Fitrat was engaged in political activity after February events in 1917. He was elected to the revolutionary party called “Yosh buhorolilar”. His articles appeared in newspapers later he became an editor. Fitrat adjusted equal relations between Russian Government. But Amir’s members and bolsheviks didn’t let his wish about independence. Therefore in 1917 it was called “Yurt qaygusi”.

Fitrat came back to Tashkent. At first he taught at school, later he taught language and literature at the University. In 1919-1920 he was a translator in Afganistan’s Embassy in Tashkent. Fitrat’s famous work is called “Chigatoy gurungi”. This organization based not only in styding Uzbek language and literature but developing of Uzbek Culture.

On April 9, 1920 he published the first journal “Tong”.

In 1920 Fitrat came to Buhara. By his initiative Oriental music school was opened in 1921 in Buhara. During 1923-1924 Fitrat work in Scientific Research Institute. Fitrat gave lectures on Oriental languages, literature, culture at Leningrad State University. He returned Uzbekistan in 1927. He worked in Pedagogical Institute in Samarkand. During his life he wrote hundreds of articles and political works.

In 1930 he was accused in policy. On 24 th April 1937 Fitrat was prisoned. And later on 4 th October 1938 he was shooted.

In 1909 his article “Munozara” was published in Istanbul. In 1911 his poems “Sayha”, “Sayoh Hindi”.

On Fitrat’s methods many new books were written “Oqu” (1917).

At the same time lots of his works, which have still been in the LimeLight, such as “Eng eski turkiy adabiyot namunalari” (text, research, notes; 1927), “Uzbek adabiyoti namunalari” (text, research, notes; 1929), “Sharq shahmati” (1928), “Uzbek klassik musiqasi va uning tarixi” (1927), “Fors shoiri Umar Hayyom” (1929) were announced.

With his works dedicated to the theory of literature – “She’r va shoirliq” (1919), “Adabiyot qoidalari” (1926), “San’atning mansha’i” (1926), “Aruz haqida” (1936) – Fitrat raised uzbek literary-aesthetic idea to the new level.

Such problems as the Independence of Motherland and nation, the development of knowledge and science, the prosperity of upbringing express the gift of Fitrat’s works. His works were highly praised and translated into various languages when he was alive. His re-“introducing” began in the second half of the 1980’s. The professor of the National University of Uzbekistan B. Qosimov issued his monograph “Fitrat” in 1994. H. Boltaboev and I. Ganiev defended their Ph. Degree dissertations “XX asr uzbek adabiyotshunosligi va Fitratning ilmiy merosi” (T., 1996) and “Fitrat dramalari poetikasi” (T., 1998) devoted to Fitrat’s creative work. His creative heritage has been investigated by such philosophers and lawyers as B. Ergashev and D. Tashquziev.

There are streets and schools named after Fitrat in Tashkent and Buhara. There was opened Memorial (museum) in his native town and a Square was erected there too.

In 1996 his 110 th anniversary was celebrated throughout the country. According to the decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan he was awarded with Navoiy bonus and Mustaqillik order.

His published works.
Fitrat. She’rlar (Poems). Uzbekiston adabiyoti va san’ati, 1987, December 11.
Fitrat. Poems. “Sharq yulduzi”, #6, 1991.
Fitrat. Hind istilochilari. “Sharq yulduzi”, #4, 1990.
Fitrat. Turkistonda ruslar. “Sharq yulduzi”, 1992.
Fitrat. Uzbek klassik musiqasi tarixi. Tashkent, “Fan”, 1993.
Fitrat. Tanlangan asarlar. II vol. Tashkent, “Ma’naviyat”, 2001.
Fitrat. Chin sevish. Tashkent, Adabiyot va san’at, 1996.
Fitrat. Najot yo’li. Tashkent, “Sharq”, 2002.

Scientific literature.
B. Qosimov. Maslakdoshlar. Tashkent, “Sharq”, 1994.
I. Ganiev. Fitratning tragediya yaratish mahorati. Tashkent, 1994.
Milliy uyg’onish va o’zbek filologiyasi masalalari. Tashkent, Universitet, 1993.
Boltaboev H. XIX asrning oxiri XX asr boshlarida dramaturgiya. Tashkent, 1993.
Boltaboev H. Noma’lum Fitrat. “Yoshlik”, 1990, pp. 34-38.
Boltaboev H. Boburshoh Fitrat talqinida. Uzbek tili va adabiyoti, 1993, #2, p.15.
Qosimov B. Fitrat (chizgilar(about him)). Sharq yulduzi, 1992, #10, p.170.
Qosimov B. Inson fojealari. Uzbekiston adabiyoti va san’ati, 1990, April 6.
Qosimov B. Fitrat. Sovet Uzbekistoni san’ati, 1991, #10.
Erkinov S. Fitrat – navoiyshunos. Uzbek tili va adabiyoti, 1990, #3, p.3.

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